Aleta May 10-7-14 EDET636: Impact of Technology on Learning Lee Graham, Ph.D.
Annotated Bibliography: Impact of a Comprehensive Blended Learning Reading Program, Read 180, on 7th and 8th Grade Students, and how Lexia, a Supplemental Reading Program May Have Positively Affected 8th Grade Students in the Current Year.
Agosto, D.E., Copeland, A.J., and Zach, L. (2013). Testing the benefits of
blended education: Using social technology to foster collaboration and knowledge
sharing in face-to-face LIS courses. J. of Education for Library and Information
Building a sense of community can be promoted by incorporating a framework that is designed to maximize student collaboration for knowledge sharing through social media. This study begins with a review of the literature and how constructing new knowledge is a social endeavor, empowered by reducing barriers of time constraints and location. Students can access each other through educational use of blogs to write out their thinking and add/receive diverse viewpoints from peers. In turn, students were more able to take the written information from blogs to face-to-face discussion. Blogs in the study design were considered to be tantamount to student journals, yet a powerful means to bridge traditional journal writing and classroom discussion. One way the blog was used in this study was that students posted their annotated descriptions of books read. Student responses were surveyed using thematic analysis. Evaluate: The contribution of this article to my research is that it provides a basis for evaluating meaningful peer interaction within a balanced learning environment. How might a shy student who needs help analyzing what he/she has read by written response on a graphic organizer geared to that book benefit by adding another blended learning component for response?
Ash, K. (2012). Blended learning choices. Education Week, 32(9), 1-5.
There are several models of blended learning for K – 12 students, each in pursuit of “the perfect balance of face-to-face and online instruction to meet the needs of their students” (p.1). A blended learning setting combines modes of delivery of content across both online portals and physical building settings. One particular organization that rotates large groups of 45 students between “group work, online course work, and face-to-face instruction” (p. 3), demonstrates the need for educators to have a clear vision when designing and implementing blended learning environments. Evaluate: This article focuses on the rotation model being one of four most common blended learning models, so it informs my particular research into the existing learning-management system at our school for seventh and eighth grade students.
Ash, K. (2012). Blended learning mixes it up. Education Week, 31(25), 1-7.
San Francisco Flex Academy is a grade 9-12 public charter school which mixes up independent online curricula, and pullout groups with teachers based on progress in online classes. Teachers have time to enrich and mediate, because of the online direct instruction. It is more important for teachers in this learning model to aggregate and interpret data for planning remediation and enrichment; time in a traditional English classroom, for example, used to be focused on planning for initial instruction and grading papers. Evaluate: This article is important to my research, because it emphasized the role of the teacher to plan instruction based on data inquiry. In the Read 180 model, students progress through reading lexiles based on evaluating their progress in comprehension. Do most students progress at a significant rate that will close the gap between current reading skills and expected gains?
Ash, K. (2013). Spaces for blended learning. Education Week, 32(25) 1-5.
Spaces for learning should be flexible so that they facilitate blended learning. Learning spaces also communicate the goal of learning to learn in an environment that replicates future employment. Sometimes this includes individualized online learning in carrels, while at others space is designed to accommodate collaborative learning. This design may include configuring classrooms according to broad subject areas. Access to space involves a wider range of hours for availability. Sometimes whole group instruction is called for in a larger space, while at others small groups may meet. Evaluate: For my research, the arrangement of space for the Read 180 blended reading model is a concern since the teacher who facilitates small group learning may distract students reading independently. Also, independent reading needs to include regular social exchange and problem-solving regarding shared reading between students. Space and equipment are factors that will be considered in the future recommendations section, if the research leads me in this direction.
Chang, C-C., Shu, K-M., Liang, C., Tseng, J-S., and Hsu, Y-S. (2014, April). Is blended
e-learning as measured by an achievement test and self-assessment better
than traditional classroom learning for vocational high school students? The
International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning, 15(2), 1-12.
Overall, the findings of this study was that blended e-learning for two eleventh grade classes of students studying electrical engineering did not reflect significant increases in achievement test scores for students when compared to traditional learning. However, self-assessment scores were higher for blended e-learning students than traditional learning. The results of this study conclude that when provided with a questionnaire for attitude, cognition and skill items learning performance can be assessed subjectively. Therefore, both subjective and objective assessments need to be taken into account when measuring the impact of learning in a blended environment. Evaluate: In my research of the effects of students’ reading progress of reading, the impact of motivation and attitude is highly relevant to considering whether my findings for the effects (positive, negative, or neutral) of blended reading are balanced with what motivates students presently and in future planning for our students as they leave this program.
Cheung, A. & Slavin, R., (2013). Effects of educational technology applications on
reading outcomes for struggling readers: A best-evidence synthesis, 277-299.
Use of well planned, small-group interaction that is integrated into a blended learning, comprehensive reading program; such as, Read 180, “did not produce meaningful positive effect sizes” (p. 277). Technology is often used to address academic needs for individuals when the numbers of students struggling with reading are high. The theoretical basis of this literature review of twenty studies that involved 7,000 students in grades 1-6 included “adequate metacognitive skills to extract meanings from text,” (p. 278). Noteworthy is that at the time of this literary review, the abundance of research reviews for reading interventions focused on intervention without the use of technology applications, such as a blended reading model, in these grade levels. Computer-assisted instruction (CAI) combined with teacher instruction and independent reading needs to be evaluated extensively to determine whether methodological rigor is being met. This article challenges researchers to go beyond studying the impact of technology on student learning solely quantitatively. Besides a comprehensive blended reading program, Lexia was analyzed to have promising effects for improving elementary reading skills. Evaluate: Since my research includes taking a closer look at how the comprehensive reading program affects reading growth, it is important to factor in the influence the supplemental Lexia reading program current eighth grade students used last school year may have impacted their use of and benefits from the current Read 180 program they are participating in. Was this a positive, negative, or neutral effect?
Conradi, K., Jang, B.G., Bryant, C., Craft, A., & McKenna, M.C. (2013). Measuring
adolescents’ attitudes toward reading: A classroom survey. Journal of
Adolescent & Adult Literacy, 56(7). 565-576.
Students’ attitudes toward reading was divided into categories beginning with reading for recreational and academic purposes. How students in the seventh and eighth grades (reflected in this article) feel about reading for different purposes and through dissimilar media can be measured in a valid and reliable manner using the Survey of Adolescent Reading Attitudes (SARA) group measure. The items in this survey have been normed, beginning with “a pilot study of 913 students in grades 7-12,” (p. 568). This six point scale ranging from very bad to very good is unique because the 18 carefully selected items include four subsets. Not only is academic reading of print (AP) and recreational reading of print (AP) separated into subcategories for analysis, but academic reading in digital settings (AD) as well as recreational reading in digital settings (RD) are evaluated as well. Students’ purposes for reading, including interests and motivation, may be analyzed through a follow-up interest inventory. These four categories can be entered into an Excel spreadsheet, and according to this article, the spreadsheet is available at the International Reading Association (IRA) website. Evaluate: The value of this article to my research is that it supplies a normed inventory that analyzes middle school students’ attitudes toward reading for both digital and print media. Since my research will focus on the impact of a comprehensive blended reading approach, this survey is highly relevant to my research.
Foote, S.M. & Mixson-Brookshire, D. (2014). Enhancing learning with technology:
Applying the findings from a study of students in online, blended, and face-
to-face first-year seminar classes. Currents in teaching and learning, 6(2), 35-41.
Students are creators of learning rather than passive consumers of knowledge. Hybrid courses utilize learning management systems, online blogs, tools for encouraging collaboration through real-time visual discussion, presentation tools, and a variety of other technologies to encourage engaging deeply in learning with peers. Also addressed is ways instructors communicate with students in blended learning settings, such as discussion boards. Clear instructions for engaging in discussions are important. Videos, PowerPoint presentations, and videos may be embedded into a course to front-load information to students before they engage in discussion. The result is that the student is the center of learning through concrete experiences (like virtual meetings to share experiences), active involvement (group discussion around a book read or a problem-solving case), and reflection (to review and recall knowledge for retention) on learning. Evaluate: When observing students engaged in learning during the comprehensive reading program environment, is interaction a part of this? Are students engaging in discussion about what they read, or off task? This article provides a base-line for what to observe for to determine the extent to which students experience and reflect on their learning.
Hernandez, N., Gonzalez, M. & Munoz, P. (2014). Planning collaborative learning in
virtual environments. Media Education Research Journal, 42(21), 25-32.
Although the methodology of this study was non-experimental, it was primarily quantitative in that data collected was from surveys of students who have experienced both face-to-face collaboration and online collaborative discussion and learning. When surveyed about virtual learning, questions centered around both a personal, group and social level as well as consideration of subject pedagogy (a curricular framework), and available technology. Also surveyed was the effect the role commitments of both teachers and students played in accountability toward specific activities within the Computer Supported Collaborative Learning (CSCL) script of the class. Roles include responsibilities that are sometimes written as group agreements for group functioning. Evaluation: This study supports my research by delineating a broader role for the teacher, in the case of Read 180—facilitator and small group manager, to “planner, technologist and facilitator” (p. 31) by connecting technology and pedagogy through organization of the learning environment. This study justifies promoting more of a social dimension if the findings of my study point in this direction.
Herold, B. (2014). New model underscores rocketship’s growing pains. Education Week 33(19).
Flexible classrooms replace blended learning models. Fourth grade students at a charter elementary school work with credentialed teachers receiving reading instruction in groups with students who have similar needs, based on strengths and weaknesses of the individuals grouped together. The move away from the orginal blended learning model was a response to students becoming dependent on teachers and programs and following these directions, without exploring deeper levels of thinking and thinking for themselves. The prior blended learning model was based on a station rotation model. Initial scores are impressive, provided the rotation model is implemented with small groups and appropriately. The research noted that flexible classrooms are particularly important for students in upper elementary grades. The station-rotation model remains most effective with grades 1 through 3. Evaluate: Currently, my observational research demonstrates that students in the Read 180 model rotate between stations and spend precious time resettling once engaged in a group. This article addresses the need to consider where deeper thinking will fit in as required for the new standards and 21st century success. Our school incorporates a dual language model, which has apparently led to a delay in reading skills that would normally be addressed at fourth/fifth grade levels rather than seventh/eighth grade levels.
Herald, B. (2014). Outside public system, blended models take hold. Education Week,
Private schools who have followed a traditional educational approach for many years are beginning to embrace blended learning programs. Some private schools are constructing alliances for the purpose of sharing resources and ideas. Analysis of data at Mission District has revealed that reading and math achievement has reflected gains in their respective subject areas. Also, Mission Delores Academy has analyzed school data across standardized assessments, which helps “identify gaps in the school’s curriculum” (p. 3). Blended learning at Jesuit Virtual Learning Academy has incorporated blended learning approaches to make connections between students studying history and theology from other states. The Bay Area BlendEd Consortium is a group of five independent high schools in Northern California, which uses blended learning models to prepare students for the type of instruction they will receive in college, and likely use in the workforce. Evaluate: A wide range of blended models described in this article expands my perspective as a researcher who is observing a program that overlaps in, and serves similar purposes.
Hew, K. F. & Cheung, W. S. (2014). Using blended learning evidence-based practices.
Singapore, Heidelberg, New York, Dordrecht & London: Springer
This book is a compilation of current research in the area of blended learning. One chapter addresses the challenge in finding the right blend and proposes a framework for individual teachers whose goal it is to reaching this balance when designing courses. Another chapter examines the affective stance students take when using technology to collaborate with one another, and research using the internet, versus a more didactic traditional teacher-led lessons. Not only do students discuss with each other, the teacher has the opportunity to enter into discussions, and every student participates. The book explores teachers designing course that embeds the use of technology to benefit/impact student learning in ways that can only be reached through the use of technologies. Evaluate: This book provides me with a foundational understanding of blended learning so that when I observe and interview students and teachers, I can gain deeper understanding of the current program design at our school and the way it is implemented here among students.
Kim, J.S., Samson, J.F., Fitzgerald, R., & Hartry, A. (2009). A randomized experiment
of a mixed-methods literacy intervention for struggling readers in grades 4-7:
Effects on word reading efficiency, reading comprehension and vocabulary, and oral
When segmented out, there is an array of reading difficulties that are delineated among older children, upper elementary and middle grades. These skills can be broadly separated into word recognition and language comprehension abilities. Read 180 addresses weaknesses in specific areas of reading, and this study focuses on a mixed-methods intervention plan through a blended learning approach. This study points out what works in this program and what does not in a study aimed at students in 4th-6th grade who failed to acquired a variety of basic reading skills in primary grades (K-3). What Read 180 does contribute is intensification of print exposure. Treatment effects were examined to determine what the program was designed to improve versus what is simply more time spent focusing on literacy. Evaluate: In our school, many students have failed to acquire comprehension skills, particularly an understanding of text structures, vocabulary, syntax (word order), and background knowledge; partially due to the environment in which they reside being a mismatch with available reading materials, and partially due to late immersion into English reading skills where vocabulary and background knowledge building are addressed through a wide array of children’s literature. This study contributes to my research by focusing on the transition of students to reading to learn across content areas.
Perez-Sanagustin, M., Santos, P., Hernandez-Leo, D., & Blat, J. (2012). 4SPPIces: A
case study of factors in a scripted collaborative-learning blended course
across spatial locations. Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning 7:443-465.
Singapore, Heidelberg, New York, Dordrecht & London: Springer
Computer-Supported Collaborative Blended Learning (CSCBL) scripts refer to well-designed learning situations that include technology. Integrated into one unique learning setting are activities embedded into that setting. A conceptual model of four factors is 4SPPIces “the space, the pedagogical method, the participants, and the history” (p. 443); it supports the design of CSCBL scripts. The technological system blends activities that are both collaborative and individual, simultaneously supported by computer-based and mobile technologies. To design this script, these four factors impact the learning environment designed by CSCBL scripts. Learning purposes are the focus when collaborative-blended-learning (CBL) is arranged by specific selection of technologies that will affect and support the pedagogy and purposes. Two research questions this article are: “(1) Does the CSCBL script, considering the 4SPPIces factors, cover the demands of the teacher for the specific geography context? and (2) Does the technological environment associated to the CSCBL script support students’ and teachers’ tasks?” (p. 445). Within this analysis socio-linguistic research has contributed understanding to how users’ interactions are shaped in communicating within electronic environments. Evaluate: This case study supports a well-designed blended learning environment. The significance of this to my research is that the comprehensive Read 180 program is generically designed with a script that is useful to a wide range of students nationwide. However, does the design reflect the unique needs for building background knowledge and other comprehension tools for students living in a remote village of Alaska?
Sobreira, P. & Tchounikine, P. (2012). A model for flexibly editing CSCL scripts.
Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning 7:567-592. New York: International
Society of the Learning Sciences, Inc. and Springer Science+Business Media
Since a comprehensive blended learning environment already comes with a Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning (CSCL) script designed with the pedagogy for the learner in mind, manipulating students within a prescribed script, or otherwise editing the script, can only be legitimatized with careful consideration of the changes within that particular learning environment or learning management system. An open perspective to script editing considers that adaptations to a pre-designed learning environment fall within a range on a continuum that strongly limits adaptations to unrestricted adaptations. If a teacher has a simple model (or framework) to follow for script editing, he/she can effectively orchestrate adaptations to the setting of the CSCL script that reflect the needs of a particular group, their resources, and unique needs. Evaluate: This article discusses the issue of adapting a CSCL script to a unique need and setting, which provides a platform for discussing what adaptations may need to be considered for making recommendations after discussing local research findings.
Tucker, C. R. (2013, March). The basics of blended instruction.
Educational Leadership. ASCD/www.ascd.org
Building a teacher-designed blended learning course is a process focused on broadening the serviceability of multiple technologies within a well planned lesson or set of lessons. When teachers design a blended learning model, the potential is high that it will be just right for their students. Getting started involves thinking big, but starting small. Draw from a variety of technologies to promote equity in classroom talk, support English language learners through visual technologies, invite Socratic discussion for deeper learning, form expert groups to encourage peer support and collaboration and application of historical concepts to current day thinking. Evaluate: The promotion of teacher-designed blended learning environment fits with my research on the impact of a comprehensive blended learning reading model and what may need to be done to branch off this model in other subject area class environments.